Name: 
 

Nervous System



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

The levels of organization in the body include
a.
endocrine, respiratory, digestive, and nervous.
b.
cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
c.
cells, tissues, and organs.
d.
lymphatic, respiratory, and circulatory.
 

2. 

The process by which organ systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment is called
a.
circulation.
b.
organization.
c.
homeostasis.
d.
teamwork.
 

3. 

Which system coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environment?
a.
lymphatic system
b.
nervous system
c.
excretory system
d.
reproductive system
 

4. 

What begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron in its environment?
a.
a threshold
b.
an action potential
c.
an impulse
d.
a dendrite
 

5. 

What is the function of the central nervous system?
a.
to relay messages
b.
to process information
c.
to analyze information
d.
all of the above
 

6. 

Which of the following general categories of sensory receptors are located everywhere in the body except the brain?
a.
thermoreceptors
b.
mechanoreceptors
c.
photoreceptors
d.
pain receptors
 

7. 

Which general category of sensory receptors detects variations in temperature?
a.
thermoreceptors
b.
mechanoreceptors
c.
photoreceptors
d.
pain receptors
 

8. 

Which of the five senses contains two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones?
a.
vision
b.
hearing
c.
smell
d.
taste
 

9. 

Drugs that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate are called
a.
stimulants.
b.
depressants.
c.
opiates.
d.
alcohol.
 

10. 

For a neuron to reach an action potential, it must
a.
release electrons.
b.
absorb calcium.
c.
reverse the electrical charge across the cell membrane.
d.
take in sodium ions.
 

11. 

Which of the following is a function of the cerebrum?
a.
controls conscious activities of the body
b.
controls heart rate
c.
controls blood pressure
d.
controls breathing
 

12. 

In which of the following structures might an infection cause dizziness?
a.
semicircular canals
b.
oval window
c.
eardrum
d.
cochlea
 
 
nervous_files/i0140000.jpg

Figure 35-2
 

13. 

In Figure 35-2, which labeled structure sends impulses to the brain that enable it to determine body motion and position?
a.
structure D
b.
structure A
c.
structure B
d.
structure C
 

14. 

The region of the brain that recognizes hunger is the
a.
brain stem.
b.
medulla oblongata.
c.
hypothalamus.
d.
thalamus.
 

15. 

Which sense relies on the largest sense organ in the body?
a.
touch
b.
hearing
c.
smell
d.
taste
 

16. 

When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron, it triggers the release of
a.
neurotransmitters.
b.
sodium ions.
c.
dendrites.
d.
receptors.
 

17. 

If you did not like the flavor of a certain oral liquid medicine, you could hide much of its taste by
a.
closing your eyes.
b.
covering your ears.
c.
holding your nose.
d.
folding your hands together.
 

18. 

Neurons are categorized by the
a.
direction in which they carry impulses.
b.
amount of metabolic activity that takes place.
c.
number of dendrites that branch out.
d.
number of impulses that they carry.
 

19. 

How many organ systems make up the human body?
a.
4
b.
5
c.
8
d.
11
 

20. 

A group of similar cells that perform a single function is called a(an)
a.
nerve.
b.
organ.
c.
tissue.
d.
organ system.
 

21. 

Which type of tissue enables a person’s fingers to move as he or she plays the piano?
a.
epithelial
b.
connective
c.
nerve
d.
muscle
 

22. 

Which type of tissue provides support for the body?
a.
epithelial
b.
connective
c.
nerve
d.
muscle
 

23. 

Which process enables the body to maintain a stable temperature?
a.
heating
b.
circulation
c.
feedback inhibition
d.
cellular activity
 

24. 

The level of chemicals in the body is regulated by
a.
action potential.
b.
feedback inhibition.
c.
the sympathetic nervous system.
d.
the parasympathetic nervous system.
 

25. 

What is the smallest structural and functional unit of the nervous system?
a.
nerve
b.
neuron
c.
organ
d.
tissue
 

26. 

The division of the nervous system that helps the body react to pain is the
a.
somatic nervous system.
b.
sensory nervous system.
c.
autonomic nervous system.
d.
sympathetic nervous system.
 

27. 

What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
a.
brain and spinal cord
b.
thalamus and hypothalamus
c.
somatic and autonomic
d.
sensory and motor
 

28. 

What system does alcohol immediately affect?
a.
digestive
b.
circulatory
c.
nervous
d.
endocrine
 

29. 

One third of all homicides are attributed to the effects of
a.
alcohol.
b.
cocaine.
c.
crack.
d.
opiates.
 

30. 

A student’s ability to think about a question and answer it correctly is directly controlled by the
a.
brain stem.
b.
cerebellum.
c.
medulla.
d.
cerebrum.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

31. 

Sensory receptors called _________________________ are found in the skin, skeletal muscles, and inner ears and are sensitive to touch, pressure, stretching of muscles, sound, and motion.
 

 

32. 

Small muscles attached to the ____________________ of your eye change its shape to help you focus on near or distant objects.
 

 

33. 

In most animals, axons and dendrites are clustered into bundles of fibers called ____________________.
 

 
 
nervous_files/i0370000.jpg

Figure 35-3
 

34. 

The process illustrated in Figure 35-3 is called a(an) ____________________.
 

 

35. 

Cirrhosis of the liver is a possible result of the long-term use of ____________________.
 

 

Short Answer
 

36. 

Distinguish between the functions of dendrites and axons.
 

37. 

What are the major regions of the brain?
 

38. 

Identify the five main senses.
 

39. 

How can the nervous system help a person run without falling? Explain.
 

40. 

How is a pain in your toe perceived by sensory receptors? Why is it important for your body to sense this pain?
 

Other
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS
This diagram shows the structure of a synapse between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of a neighboring neuron.

nervous_files/i0470000.jpg

Figure 35-4
 

41. 

Applying Concepts In Figure 35-4, which structures release neurotransmitters?
 

42. 

Interpreting Graphics In Figure 35-4, into what area do the neurotransmitters diffuse?
 

43. 

Applying Concepts Referring to Figure 35-4, after the neurotransmitters are released from the cell surface, what happens to the neurotransmitters?
 

44. 

Applying Concepts If the axon in Figure 35-4 is part of a motor neuron, to what cell are the impulses being passed?
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is a measure of the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream per 100 mL of blood. The following graphs illustrate how many alcoholic drinks consumed in one hour result in different levels of BAC in individuals of different masses. In some states, an adult driving with a BAC of 0.08% or higher is considered to be legally drunk.

nervous_files/i0520000.jpg

Figure 35-5
 

45. 

Using Tables and Graphs You have a mass of 45 kg and have had one drink. According to Figure 35-5, how long would it take for your BAC to drop to 0.04% or lower?
 

46. 

Using Tables and Graphs You are a 48-kg adult and have had four drinks in an hour. According to Figure 35-5, could you drive legally after three hours?
 

47. 

Interpreting Graphics Based on Figure 35-5, how is the mass of an individual related to BAC levels?
 

48. 

Interpreting Graphics A 40-kg person and a 50-kg person each drink 4 drinks in 4 hours. Do they have the same BAC?
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS

nervous_files/i0570000.jpg

Figure 35-6
 

49. 

Applying Concepts Referring to Figure 35-6, which structure is the control center for recognition and analysis for hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature?
 

50. 

Applying Concepts In Figure 35-6, which structure is the cerebellum?
 



 
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