Ecology Test Chapters 3-6

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____††††††††† 1.†† The branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called

a.

economy.

b.

modeling.

c.

recycling.

d.

ecology.

 

 

____††††††††† 2.†† All of the members of a particular species that live in one area are called a(an)

a.

biome.

b.

population.

c.

community.

d.

ecosystem.

 

 

____††††††††† 3.†† Green plants are

a.

producers.

b.

consumers.

c.

herbivores.

d.

omnivores.

 

 

____††††††††† 4.†† Which of the following organisms does NOT require sunlight to live?

a.

chemosynthetic bacteria

b.

algae

c.

trees

d.

photosynthetic bacteria

 

 

____††††††††† 5.†† An organism that cannot make its own food is called a(an)

a.

heterotroph.

b.

chemotroph.

c.

autotroph.

d.

producer.

 

 

____††††††††† 6.†† In which way are green plants in a sunny mountain meadow and sulfur bacteria in a deep-sea volcanic vent alike?

a.

They both use photosynthesis to make their own food.

b.

They both produce carbohydrates and oxygen.

c.

They both use chemosynthesis to produce their own food.

d.

They both produce carbon and hydrogen.

 

 

____††††††††† 7.†† A snake that eats a frog that has eaten an insect that fed on a plant is a

a.

first-level producer.

b.

first-level consumer.

c.

second-level producer.

d.

third-level consumer.

 

 

____††††††††† 8.†† Which of the following is NOT recycled in the biosphere?

a.

water

b.

nitrogen

c.

carbon

d.

energy

 

 

 

____††††††††† 9.†† Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following processes EXCEPT

a.

photosynthesis.

b.

transpiration.

c.

burning of fossil fuels.

d.

decomposition of plants and animals.

 

 

____††††††††† 10. How is carbon stored in the biosphere?

a.

in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide

b.

underground as fossil fuels and calcium carbonate rock

c.

in the oceans as dissolved carbon dioxide

d.

all of the above

 

 

____††††††††† 11. Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by

a.

humans.

b.

plants.

c.

bacteria.

d.

consumers.

 

 

____††††††††† 12. The event that can occur after a lake receives a large input of a limiting nutrient is

a.

an algal bloom.

b.

algae begin to die and decomposers take over.

c.

nitrogen compounds are recycled.

d.

the concentration of oxygen drops below the necessary level.

 

 

____††††††††† 13. Each of the following is an abiotic factor in the environment EXCEPT

a.

plant life.

b.

soil type.

c.

rainfall.

d.

temperature.

 

 

____††††††††† 14. Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?

a.

average temperature of the ecosystem

b.

type of soil in the ecosystem

c.

number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem

d.

concentration of oxygen in the ecosystem

 

 

____††††††††† 15. An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism is called

a.

competition.

b.

sybiosis.

c.

mutualism.

d.

predation.

 

 

____††††††††† 16. No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

a.

because of the interactions that shape the ecosystem.

b.

unless the species require different abiotic factors.

c.

because of the competitive exclusion principle.

d.

unless the species require different biotic factors.

 

 

____††††††††† 17. The symbiotic relationship between a flower and the insect that feeds on its nectar is an example of

a.

mutualism because the flower provides the insect with food, and the insect pollinates the flower.

b.

parasitism because the insect lives off the nectar from the flower.

c.

commensalism because the insect does not harm the flower and the flower does not benefit from the relationship.

d.

predation because the insect feeds on the flower.

 

 

 

 

____††††††††† 18. Primary succession can begin after

a.

a forest fire.

b.

a lava flow.

c.

farm land is abandoned.

d.

a severe storm.

 

 

____††††††††† 19. What is one difference between primary and secondary succession?

a.

Primary succession is slow and secondary succession is rapid.

b.

Secondary succession begins on soil and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces.

c.

Primary succession modifies the environment and secondary succession does not.

d.

Secondary succession begins with lichens and primary succession begins with trees.

 

 

____††††††††† 20. Which is a factor that could interrupt the progress of succession?

a.

colonization of surfaces by lichens

b.

different animals appearing at each stage

c.

another natural disturbance

d.

long-term fluctuations in climate

 

 

____††††††††† 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that play a role in population growth rate?

a.

immigration

b.

death rate

c.

emigration

d.

demography

 

 

____††††††††† 22. There are 150 Saguaro cacti plants per square kilometer in a certain area of Arizona desert. To which population characteristic does this information refer?

a.

growth rate

b.

geographic distribution

c.

age structure

d.

population density

 

 

____††††††††† 23. When organisms move out of the population, this is known as

a.

emigration.

b.

abandonment.

c.

immigration.

d.

succession.

 

 

____††††††††† 24. What occurs in a population as it grows?

a.

The birthrate becomes higher than the death rate.

b.

The birthrate stays the same and the death rate increases.

c.

The birthrate becomes lower than the death rate.

d.

The birthrate and the death rate remain the same.

 

 

____††††††††† 25. In a logistic growth curve, exponential growth is the phase in which the population

a.

reaches carrying capacity.

b.

grows quickly and few animals are dying.

c.

growth begins to slow down.

d.

growth stops.

 

 

____††††††††† 26. A biotic or an abiotic resource in the environment that causes population size to decrease is a

a.

carrying capacity.

b.

limiting nutrient.

c.

limiting factor.

d.

growth factor.

 

 

 

 

____††††††††† 27. Which will reduce competition within a speciesí population?

a.

fewer individuals

b.

higher birthrate

c.

fewer resources

d.

higher population density

 

 

____††††††††† 28. If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment, the

a.

death rate may rise.

b.

birthrate may rise.

c.

death rate must fall.

d.

birthrate must fall.

 

 

____††††††††† 29. Which of the following would NOT be a limiting factor to the size of a large, dense population?

a.

a struggle for food, water, space, or sunlight

b.

predator/prey relationships

c.

a struggle to find shelter from a natural disaster

d.

parasitism and disease

 

 

____††††††††† 30. The sulfur and nitrogen compounds in smog combine with water to form

a.

ozone.

b.

ammonia.

c.

acid rain.

d.

chlorofluorocarbons.

 

 

____††††††††† 31. One property that makes DDT hazardous over the long run is that DDT is

a.

an insecticide.

b.

a perfect pesticide.

c.

nonbiodegradable.

d.

deadly to herbivores.

 

 

____††††††††† 32. As DDT moves up the trophic levels in food chains, or food webs, its concentration

a.

stays the same.

b.

increases.

c.

decreases.

d.

is eliminated.

 

 

____††††††††† 33. Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by all of the following EXCEPT the

a.

burning of fossil fuels.

b.

depletion of the ozone layer.

c.

burning of trees and forests.

d.

none of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

 

 

Figure 3-5

 

††††††††††††††††† 34. Predicting How might a large omnivore change the flow of energy in Figure 3-5, Diagram II?

 

35.  Interpreting Graphics How many Kilocalories (Kcal) can the top carnivore in Figure 3-5, Diagram I store? Explain.

36.  According to figure 3-5, what are the secondary consumers in diagram I?

37.  How many grams per square meter of biomass are in trophic level 2 of diagram II?

38.  What are the tertiary consumers in diagram II ?

39.  Which pyramid is a pyramid of energy, I or II ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Graph I shows the growth curve for a culture of Paramecium aurelia. Graph II shows the growth curve for a culture of Paramecium caudatum, a larger species. Graph III shows the growth curves of both species when they are grown together.

 

 

Figure 5-2

 

††††††††††††††††† 40. Interpreting Graphics From Figure 5-2, which species has the greater growth rate overall when the species are grown together? Describe the growth curve of P. caudatum in Graph III.

 

††††††††††††††††† 41. Observing What type of population growth curve can be observed in Graphs I and II of Figure 5-2?

 

††††††††††††††††† 42. Drawing Conclusions What is the most likely explanation for the decline of the P. caudatum shown in Graph III of Figure 5-2?

 

43.  Drawing Conclusions Are the limiting factors for all cultures in Figure 5-2 density-dependent or density-independent? Explain.

 

 


Laboratory Based Questions

 

44.  The diameter of the field of view on a compound light microscope at 400x magnification is determined to be 470 micrometers. While looking at a culture of Paramecium you find that 3 Paramecium laid end to end stretch across the diameter of the field of view. How long is each Paramecium? If you then viewed them at 100x how many Paramecium would you expect to see stretched across the field of view?

45.  Jerry is performing his nitrate lab. He has sand, ammonium chloride, and soil. His reading get to be 50mg/L and he decides to seal his jar. He notices that the other students have very rapidly decreasing levels of nitrate but his decreases very very slowly. Explain why this is occurring?

46.  What is inside of a fast plant seed? What causes them to end their dormancy and germinate?

47.  Why does adding acid to distilled water cause a more rapid change then adding acid to ocean water? What does this tell you about the impact of acid rain on water sources?

 

 

Essays

1. Describe the cycling of nutrients in either the nitrogen or carbon cycle.

 

2. Discuss the factors which have allowed the human population to continue to grow exponentially.