AP Bio Self Quiz Ch 50: Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

1) There are a few vertebrates that seem to lack respiratory pigments. Which of the following is most likely to be an example of such an animal?
A) a mammal in an Amazon jungle
B) a fish in a shallow pool in a sunny meadow in Texas
C) a frog in a pond in North Dakota
D) a bird in north Alaska
E) a fish in the Antarctic Ocean

2) Which of the following causes the Earth's seasons?
A) changes in the Earth's distance from the sun
B) global air circulation
C) ocean currents
D) the tilt of the Earth's axis
E) global wind patterns

3) Nutrient-rich agricultural runoff into freshwater ecosystems
A) often leads to increasingly oligotrophic lakes.
B) can result in "cultural eutrophication."
C) is usually associated with a decrease in phytoplankton productivity.
D) will eventually increase the amount of available dissolved oxygen.
E) often results in a dramatic reduction in the amount of detritus.

4) In the development of terrestrial biomes, which factor is most dependent on all the others?
A) prevailing temperature.
B) prevailing rainfall.
C) soil structure.
D) mineral nutrient availability.
E) the species of colonizing animals.

5) Within any given type of terrestrial biome
A) species composition is typically uniform.
B) there is little or no vertical stratification.
C) periodic disturbance is rare.
D) A and B are true.
E) None of the above is true.

6) Probably the most important factors affecting the distribution of biomes are
A) climate and topography.
B) species diversity and abundance.
C) community succession and climate.
D) wind and water current patterns.
E) day length and rainfall.

7) Which of the following terrestrial biomes is (are) adapted to frequent fires?
A) savanna
B) chaparral
C) temperate grasslands
D) Only A and B are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

8) Which of the following is responsible for the summer and winter stratification of lakes?
A) Stratification always follows the fall and spring turnovers.
B) Oxygen is most abundant in deeper waters.
C) Stratification is caused by a thermocline.
D) Winter ice sinks in the summer.
E) Water is densest at 4degreeC.

9) Which of the following are examples of proximate (as opposed to ultimate) questions?
A) How does ambient temperature affect stomatal regulation in desert plants?
B) What physiological changes are associated with water stress in desert plants?
C) How do temperature fluctuations affect thermoregulatory behavior in desert rodents?
D) A and B only are proximate questions.
E) A, B, and C are proximate questions.

10) Organisms respond to environmental changes (such as global warming) in several ways. Which response is the slowest, and thus least likely in the event of rapid environmental change?
A) physiological adaptation
B) migration
C) evolutionary adaptation
D) morphological adaptation
E) behavioral adaptation

11) Phytoplankton is most frequently found in which of the following zones?
A) intertidalB) benthicC) tidalD) photicE) abyssal

12) "How does the foraging of animals on tree seeds affect the distribution and abundance of the trees?" This question
A) is a valid ecological question.
B) is difficult to answer because a large experimental area would be required.
C) is difficult to answer because a long-term experiment would be required.
D) Both A and B are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

13) Tropical grasslands are also known as
A) taiga.
B) savanna.
C) temperate plains.
D) tundra.
E) chaparral.

14) Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between fire and ecosystems?
A) The chance of fire in a given ecosystem is highly predictable over the short term.
B) Chaparral communities have evolved to the extent that they rarely burn.
C) The prevention of forest fires has allowed more productive and stable plant communities to develop.
D) Many kinds of plants and plant communities have adapted to frequent fires.
E) Fire is unnatural in ecosystems and should be prevented.

15) Polar regions are cooler than the equator because
A) sunlight strikes the poles at an oblique angle.
B) the poles are permanently tilted away from the sun.
C) there is more ice at the poles.
D) the poles are farther from the sun.
E) the poles have a thicker atmosphere.