Self Quiz Chapter 25: Tracing Phylogeny

1) Racemization of amino acids might be a useful technique for dating all of the following EXCEPT
A) remains of bird eggs found associated with paleoindian villages.
B) ancient trees in the Petrified Forest National Park.
C) a mammoth frozen in arctic ice.
D) leaf films pressed between layers of sandstone or shale.
E) an insect preserved in amber.

2) Which of the following molecular systematic techniques is the LEAST beneficial for phylogenetic studies because it provides information about the smallest amount of molecular information in an organism?
A) amino acid sequencing of proteins
B) nucleotide sequencing of DNA
C) restriction mapping of the genome
D) DNA-NA hybridization
E) nucleotide sequencing of RNA

3) The only taxon that actually exists as a natural unit is the
A) family.B) species.C) class.D) genus.E) phylum.

4) A randomly selected group of organisms from a family would show more genetic variation than a randomly selected group from a
A) genus.B) phylum.C) order.D) kingdom.E) class.

5) The lakes of northern Minnesota harbor many similar species of damselflies of the genus Enallagma that have apparently undergone speciation from ancestral stock since the last glacial retreat of approximately ten thousand years ago. Which of the following techniques would be most useful in sorting out evolutionary relationships among these species?
A) sequencing of mitochondrial DNA
B) sequencing of genomic DNA
C) study of comparative anatomy
D) sequencing of ribosomal RNA
E) sequencing of amino acids in proteins

6) The best index fossils for assigning relative ages to different strata are those of
A) soft-bodied invertebrates.
B) dinosaurs.
C) flightless birds.
D) shelled marine organisms.
E) bacteria.

The questions below refer to the following geological time periods. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A. Cretaceous
B. Precambrian
C. Pleistocene
D Paleocene
E. Permian

7) era of the origin of the first animals
8) period of mass extinctions about 250 million years ago

9) Phylogeny is the
A) theory of evolution by natural selection.
B) branch of biology concerned with the diversity of life.
C) evolutionary history of a species.
D) life history of an organism.
E) branch of biology concerned with the relations between plants and the Earth's surface.

10) The two names of a species' binomial are its specific name and its
A) phylum.B) genus.C) order.D) family.E) class.

11) Which combination of the following species characteristics would cause the greatest likelihood of fossilization?

I. aquatic
II. arctic
III. hard body parts
IV. presence of organic material
V. flight
VI. long lasting

A) III only
B) II, IV, and V
C) I, II, and VI
D) I, III, and VI
E) III and VI

12) A technique used in molecular systematics relies on the comparison of cytochrome c in different animals. This technique is referred to as
A) protein comparison.
B) translation.
C) DNA-DNA hybridization.
D) restriction mapping.
E) electron transport.

13) A major evolutionary episode that corresponded in time most closely with the formation of Pangaea was the
A) origin of humans.
B) Pleistocene ice ages.
C) Permian extinctions.
D) Cretaceous extinctions.
E) Cambrian explosion.

The questions below refer to the following terms. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A. nonadaptive
B. analogous
C. homologous
D. paraphyletic
E. polyphyletic

14) shared primitive characters

15) Which of the following can be used to determine the absolute age of fossils?
A) the "DNA clock"
B) cladistics
C) the half-life of isotopes
D) sedimentary strata
E) index fossils